Anesthesia: Essays and Researches  Login  | Users Online: 135 Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
Home | About us | Editorial board | Ahead of print | Search | Current Issue | Archives | Submit article | Instructions | Copyright form | Subscribe | Advertise | Contacts


 
Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 7-9  

Anesthesia for endoscopic third ventriculostomy in children


Department of Anesthesia, Baby Memorial Hospital, Kozhikode, Kerala, India

Date of Web Publication16-Feb-2017

Correspondence Address:
M C Rajesh
Shrirang, Opp. Tel Exchange, Chevayur, Kozhikode - 673 017, Kerala
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0259-1162.186618

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

Neuroendoscopy has established itself as a routine neurosurgical procedure in pediatric population. To have an uneventful smooth perioperative course, it is important for anesthesiologist to know about the key steps, possible complications, and specific anesthetic requirements. Among neuroendoscopies, endoscopic third ventriculostomy is the commonly performed one.

Keywords: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy, neuroendoscopy, pediatric neuroendoscopy, third ventriculostomy


How to cite this article:
Rajesh M C. Anesthesia for endoscopic third ventriculostomy in children. Anesth Essays Res 2017;11:7-9

How to cite this URL:
Rajesh M C. Anesthesia for endoscopic third ventriculostomy in children. Anesth Essays Res [serial online] 2017 [cited 2017 Oct 18];11:7-9. Available from: http://www.aeronline.org/text.asp?2017/11/1/7/186618


   Introduction Top


Endoscopic neurosurgical procedures are becoming more frequent in the pediatric population.[1] The advantage of this technique is that it allows intracranial intervention with minimal damage to healthy brain tissue. Also from the surgeon's perspective, it provides better visualization of the intracranial structures. Initially, neuroendoscopy was performed exclusively for endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), for the treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus. However, it is being successfully employed recently in many types of neurosurgical procedures, either as a primary approach or as an adjunct.[2] For the past many years, it has proved its worth as a surgical approach for tumor biopsy or resection, cyst fenestration, and removal, evacuation of intraventricular hemorrhage and plexus coagulation.

Although most of these procedures have become established as a routine for the last 10–20 years, reports in the literature about basic anesthesia concepts for this particular technique is sparse.[3] Although a minimally invasive technique, with low morbidity and mortality even in patients younger than 24 months, a few complications have been reported in the literature.[4] For successful conduct of anesthesia, one should be aware of these problems as well as the basic surgical requirements. Among neuroendoscopic procedures, ETV is a commonly performed and well-established technique for noncommunicating hydrocephalus. It is also recommended in cases of shunt malfunction or infections.

Interestingly, the first endoscopic procedure in neurosurgery was performed by Victor Lespinasse about 100 years ago. He is reported to have used a cystoscope to fulgurate the choroid plexus in two infants.[5] Twelve years later, Walter Dandy repeated the same procedure.[6]


   Procedure Top


Basically, ETV involves establishing a connection between third ventricle and prepontine subarachnoid space, fenestrating the floor of third ventricle. This allows the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the third ventricle to basal subarachnoid space while bypassing the aqueduct.[7] After ventriculoscope insertion, the procedure can be viewed on a video screen.

Ventriculoscope is inserted through a frontal burr hole to the right (2–3 cm from midline) and in front of coronal suture, directed to the third ventricle [Figure 1]. Bupivacaine 0.25% with vasoconstrictor is infiltrated for analgesia and to reduce bleeding. Optimal surgical access is achieved in supine or semi-sitting with the head flexed so that the burr hole can be conveniently located at the apex. This will also help to minimize the loss of CSF.[8] Absolute immobility of the patient is required for the safe passage of scope through the brain tissue.[8] Measuring volume of fluid infused and ensuring adequate efflux is important to prevent any rise in intracranial pressure (ICP). Because of close proximity of the third ventricle to midbrain, any acute distension has the potential to precipitate cardiac arrhythmias.[9] Ringer Lactate at body temperature is the most commonly used irrigation fluid.
Figure 1: Direction of scope from frontal burr hole to the third ventricle.

Click here to view



   Patients Top


Usual clinical presentation is with features of hydrocephalus or for revision surgery with an in situ shunt. Associated congenital malformations such as meningomyelocele, congenital cardiopathies are also reported.[10]


   Preoperative Planning Top


Dehydration and electrolyte abnormalities if present need to be corrected before surgery. Patient's neurological status is noted before accepting the case. Associated bulbar palsy and sleep disturbance are also noted. Patients are at higher risk of urinary tract infections or impaired renal function as a part of multisystem congenital syndromes. Usual surgical time is 20–60 min. Since rapid postoperative neurological assessment is desirable, agents such as high dose narcotics which can cause prolonged postoperative sedation need to be avoided.[11]


   Anesthetic Technique Top


If the child has got an intravenous (IV) line, induction with propofol or thiopental is ideal. But in children without IV access, inhalational induction is the logical option and is acceptable.[11],[12],[13] Sevoflurane has got an edge over other inhalational agents in the context of pediatric practice, because of its well-tolerated odor which facilitates smooth induction. Incidence of laryngospasm, airway irritability, and breath holding is less with sevoflurane. However, the use of nitrous oxide is discouraged because of elevations in ICP, expansion of ventricular air bubbles and exacerbation of symptoms in the event of venous air embolism.[14],[15] For maintenance of anesthesia, both total IV anesthesia involving remifentanyl and volatile agents like sevoflurane have been described. One potential problem noted in pediatric patients is the incidence of hypotension and bradycardia with bolus doses of remifentanyl. This can be avoided by starting it as infusion at the time of induction and titrating with response. Inhalational agents can be used in <1 minimum alveolar concentration wherein there will not be any considerable increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF).[16] Care of thermoregulation is critical, especially in small children. Large exchange of irrigation fluid and wetting of surgical drapes expose the child to the risk of life threatening perioperative hypothermia.[17] Use of thermal blanket and warm irrigation fluids or fluid warmer is strongly advocated.

The largest possible catheter should be used to establish peripheral venous line, and access should be ensured throughout the procedure. The aim of IV fluid administration is to maintain normovolemia. In general, there is no requirement for blood transfusions. Routine and emergency drugs must be labeled and kept. Proper postoperative analgesia can be ensured by combinations of paracetamol and low dose opiates, without affecting postoperative neurologic evaluation.[13] Eyes should be protected from external pressure and surgical cleaning solutions. While positioning the child, care must be taken to ensure adequate ventilation and avoidance of venous congestion.


   Intraoperative Monitoring Top


A consensus on standard monitoring requirements has not yet established in the literature. Basic monitoring includes electrocardiography, pulse oximetry, capnography, temperature, and urine output monitoring. There are many authors who recommend invasive blood pressure monitoring by indwelling arterial catheter in all patients, irrespective of their age.[18] Abrupt changes in CBF due to changes in ICP is possible during the procedure. Transcranial Doppler is the fastest and most reliable method to detect any fluctuations in CBF due to changes in ICP.[19] It has got high sensitivity to changes in CBF. However, practical objections restrict it is routine use in neuroendoscopic procedures even though many consider it as a routine monitor in neuroendoscopy. Use of ICP monitoring and the methods employed is another debatable point. Even though several strategies to ICP monitoring are described, measuring through the rinsing channel of the endoscope is preferred in literature.


   Complications Top


Fatal complications described in literature are rare.[20] However, Injury of the basilar artery is the most feared intraoperative complication. Artery is located under the floor of third ventricle and can be subjected to trauma by the catheter tip.[21] This can lead to massive intraventricular and subarachnoid hemorrhage, hemiparesis, and midbrain damage. Manipulation of delicate structures around the third ventricle (hypothalamus and brain stem) can occasionally lead to intraoperative bradyarrhythmias, hypotension, hypertension, and even cardiac arrest.[22] This procedure can also result in reduction of cerebral perfusion or even ischemia secondary to an increase in ICP. Other reported neurological complications are paralysis of III and VI nerves, delayed awakening, transitory mental confusion, headache, loss of memory, infection, convulsions, and pneumocephalus. Hypothermia is a potential complication that can result in delayed awakening and disordered coagulation. However, some of the commonly observed postoperative complications such as vomiting and respiratory problems are not specific to the procedure. Overall, a good long-term outcome after ETV is between 70% and 80% in most case series.[23] With expertise, complication rates are bound to come down. In fact it is now accepted as a therapeutic option ahead of shunt revision in cases of obstructive hydrocephalus.[24]


   Conclusions Top


With improvements in technology, neuroendoscopy in pediatric population are now routinely performed in more and more centers. It is important for anesthesiologists to understand the particularities associated with this procedure to effectively navigate the patient in the perioperative settings. It is imperative to document extent of pre-existing neurological impairment and associated congenital defects. Any fluid and electrolyte abnormalities should be corrected before taking up for procedure. Attention should be given to problems specific to pediatric age group such as hypothermia and fluid overload. Absolute intraoperative immobilization, cardiovascular stability, and rapid recovery for neurological assessment are perceived anesthetic goals. Any rapid increase in ICP must be prevented, detected, or quickly managed. Fortunately, fatal complications are rare.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
   References Top

1.
Gorayeb RP, Cavalheiro S, Zymberg ST. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy in children younger than 1 year of age. J Neurosurg 2004;100 5 Suppl: 427-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Enchev Y, Oi S. Historical trends of neuroendoscopic surgical techniques in the treatment of hydrocephalus. Neurosurg Rev 2008;31:249-62.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Baykan N, Isbir O, Gercek A. Ten years of experience with paediatric neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy: Features and perioperative complications of 210 cases. J Neurosurg Anaesthesiol 2005;17:33-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Ersahin Y, Arslan D. Complications of endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Childs Nerv Syst 2008;24:943-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Grant JA. Victor Darwin Lespinasse: A biographical sketch. Neurosurgery 1996;39:1232-3.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Hsu W, Li KW, Bookland M, Jallo GI. Keyhole to the brain: Walter Dandy and neuroendoscopy. J Neurosurg Pediatr 2009;3:439-42.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Schubert A, Deogaonkar A, Lotto M, Niezgoda J, Luciano M. Anesthesia for minimally invasive cranial and spinal surgery. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2006;18:47-56.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Amini A, Schmidt RH. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy in a series of 36 adult patients. Neurosurg Focus 2005;19:E9.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Johnson JO, Jimenez DF, Tobias JD. Anaesthetic care during minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures in infants and children. Paediatr Anaesth 2002;12:478-88.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Gilbert JN, Jones KL, Rorke LB, Chernoff GF, James HE. Central nervous system anomalies associated with meningomyelocele, hydrocephalus, and the Arnold-Chiari malformation: Reappraisal of theories regarding the pathogenesis of posterior neural tube closure defects. Neurosurgery 1986;18:559-64.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Fàbregas N, Craen RA. Anaesthesia for minimally invasive neurosurgery. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2002;16:81-93.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Fàbregas N, López A, Valero R, Carrero E, Caral L, Ferrer E. Anesthetic management of surgical neuroendoscopies: Usefulness of monitoring the pressure inside the neuroendoscope. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2000;12:21-8.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Furay C, Howell T. Paediatric neuroanaesthesia. Contin Educ Anaesth Crit Care Pain 2010;10:172-6.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Derbent A, Ersahin Y, Yurtseven T, Turhan T. Hemodynamic and electrolyte changes in patients undergoing neuroendoscopic procedures. Childs Nerv Syst 2006;22:253-7.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Ganjoo P, Sethi S, Tandon MS, Singh D, Pandey BC. Perioperative complications of intraventricular neuroendoscopy: A 7-year experience. Turk Neurosurg 2010;20:33-8.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Krane EJ, Philip BM, Yeh KK, Domino KB. Anaesthesia for pediatric neurosurgery. In: Smith RM, Mototyama EK, Davis PJ, editors. Smith's Anaesthesia for Infants and Children. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Mosby; 2006. p. 651-84.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Ambesh SP, Kumar R. Neuroendoscopic procedures: Anesthetic considerations for a growing trend: A review. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2000;12:262-70.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Fritsch MJ, Kienke S, Ankermann T, Padoin M, Mehdorn HM. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy in infants. J Neurosurg 2005;103 1 Suppl:50-3.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Kalmar AF, Van Aken J, Struys MM. Exceptional clinical observation: Total brain ischemia during normal intracranial pressure readings caused by obstruction of the outflow of a neuroendoscope. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2005;17:175-6.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Singh GP, Prabhakar H, Bithal PK, Dash HH. A retrospective analysis of perioperative complications during intracranial neuroendoscopic procedures: Our institutional experience. Neurol India 2011;59:874-8.  Back to cited text no. 20
  Medknow Journal  
21.
Baykan N, Isbir O, Gerçek A, Dagçnar A, Ozek MM. Ten years of experience with pediatric neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy: Features and perioperative complications of 210 cases. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2005;17:33-7.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
van Aken J, Struys M, Verplancke T, de Baerdemaeker L, Caemaert J, Mortier E. Cardiovascular changes during endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 2003;46:198-201.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Gangemi M, Mascari C, Maiuri F, Godano U, Donati P, Longatti PL. Long-term outcome of endoscopic third ventriculostomy in obstructive hydrocephalus. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 2007;50:265-9.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Chhun V, Sacko O, Boetto S, Roux FE. Third ventriculostomy for shunt failure. World Neurosurgery 2015;83:970-5.  Back to cited text no. 24
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]



 

Top
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
   Procedure
   Patients
    Preoperative Pla...
   Anesthetic Technique
    Intraoperative M...
   Complications
   Conclusions
    References
    Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed921    
    Printed13    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded67    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal