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Effect of single-dose dexmedetomidine on intraoperative hemodynamics and postoperative recovery during pediatric adenotonsillectomy

1 Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Kalpana Chawla Government Medical College and Hospital, Karnal, Haryana, India
2 Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
3 Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Vardhaman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Mritunjay Kumar,
Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0259-1162.251859

Background: In children undergoing adenotonsillectomy, smooth recovery from anesthesia without any respiratory compromise and excessive sedation or pain is always desirable. In this placebo-controlled study, we examined the effect of single dose of dexmedetomidine on intraoperative hemodynamics and postoperative recovery profile such as emergence agitation (EA), pain, and sedation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy. Methods: Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists I or II children in the age group of 5–10 years, undergoing adenotonsillectomy were randomly assigned to receive dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg (Group D) or volume-matched saline (placebo) (Group C), 10 min before induction of anesthesia. Intraoperative heart rate (HR) and mean blood pressure (MBP), duration of surgery, time to extubation, EA using Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) scale, level of sedation in postanesthesia care unit using Ramsay sedation score (RSS), and postoperative visual analog score (VAS) for pain were recorded and compared. Results: Dexmedetomidine group had lower HR and stable MBP, compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Postoperatively, the agitation score (PAED scale score) was statistically lower in Group D compared to Group C (13.84 ± 1.39; median 14 in Group C vs. 9.37 ± 1.33; median 9.5 in Group D; P < 0.001). All patients in Group C had PAED scale score >12, while only 6.67% of patients in Group D had PAED scale score of 12. The patients in Group D had higher RSS (2.62 ± 0.49 in Group D vs. 1.60 ± 0.50, P= 0.004); none of the patients were excessively sedated or had RSS >3. No significant difference was found in VAS score of the groups at all times, except at 0 h (P = 0.002). Time to extubation was significantly longer in the dexmedetomidine group (7.70 ± 1.62 min in Group D vs. 5.23 ± 1.91 min in Group C; P= 0.001). Conclusion: Premedication of dexmedetomidine at the dose of 1 μg/kg in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy resulted in favorable effect on intraoperative hemodynamics, significant decrease in postoperative EA without causing any excessive sedation, desaturation, or any other drug-related adverse events.

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