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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 253-258

Dexmedetomidine and ketamine as an adjuvant to levobupivacaine for pediatric caudal analgesia: A randomized, controlled study

1 Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India
2 Department of Community and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Prakash K Dubey
E 3/4 IGIMS Campus, Patna - 800 014, Bihar
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/aer.AER_42_20

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Background: Ketamine and dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to caudal block are used in the pediatric population. Aims: We aimed to compare the analgesic and safety profile of dexmedetomidine with ketamine for single-shot caudal block. Settings and Design: This was a randomized controlled study conducted in a tertiary care university hospital. Materials and Methods: Ninety patients admitted for routine infraumbilical surgical procedures under general anesthesia were enrolled in this double-blind randomized study. Following caudal block under general anesthesia, patients were allocated to one of three groups; Group LS received 0.75− 1 levobupivacaine 0.25% diluted in saline 0.9%, Group LK received 0.75− 1 levobupivacaine 0.25% with ketamine 0.5− 1, and Group LD received 0.75− 1 levobupivacaine 0.25% with dexmedetomidine 1 μ− 1. Postoperative pain was assessed by the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability (FLACC) score, and the duration of analgesia (time from caudal block to time at which FLACC score 4 or more) was recorded. Hemodynamic parameters and oxygen saturation were also monitored. Statistical Analysis Used: Categorical data were analyzed by Chi-squire test and numerical continuous data were analyzed by Student's t-test for comparison between two groups. Mann–Whitney test was used to compare score. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the means between three groups. Results: The addition of dexmedetomidine and ketamine to levobupivacaine resulted in significant prolongation of postoperative analgesia duration (467 min and 385 min, respectively) compared with 0.25% levobupivacaine alone (276 min). No significant side effects requiring intervention were observed in any group. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to levobupivacaine provides a longer duration of analgesia as compared to ketamine without any significant side effect.

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